How Modern Jihadism Became Co-Invented by the U.S. and Saudi Governments
Eric Zuesse, originally posted at Strategic Culture
Modern jihadism was co-invented in 1979 by Saudi Prince Bandar bin Sultan al Saud, and U.S. National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski, working together, and here is the background for it, and the way — and the reasons — that it was done:
Back in the later Middle Ages, the Roman Catholic Church and its aristocracies had used religious fervor in order to motivate very conservative and devout people to invade foreign countries so as to spread their empire and to not need to rely only on taxes in order to fund these invasions, but also to highly motivate them by their faith in a heavenly reward. It was far cheaper this way, because these invading forces wouldn’t need to be paid so much; the reason why they’d be far cheaper is that their pay would chiefly come to them in their afterlife (if at all). That’s why people of strong faith were used. (Aristocracies always rule by deceiving the public, and faith is the way.) Those invaders were Roman Catholic Crusaders, and they went out on Crusades to spread their faith and so ‘converted’ and slaughtered millions of Muslims and Jews, so as to expand actually the aristocracies’ and preachers’ empire, which is the reason why they had been sent out on those missions (to win ‘converts’). This was charity, after all. (Today’s large tax-exempt non-profits are no different — consistently promoting their aristocracy’s invasions, out of ‘humanitarian’ concern for the ‘welfare’, or else ‘souls’, of the people they are invading — and, if need be, to kill ‘bad people’. This has been the reality. And it still is. It’s the way to sell imperialism to individuals who won’t benefit from imperialism — make mental slaves of them.)
The original Islamic version of the Christian Crusades, Islamic Holy War or “jihad,” started on 14 November 1914 in Constantinople (today’s Istanbul) when the Sheikh Hayri Bey, the supreme religious authority in the Ottoman Empire, along with the Ottoman Emperor, Mehmed V, declared a Holy War for their Muslim followers to take up arms against Britain, France, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro in World War I. They were on Germany’s side, and lost. (That’s the reason why the Ottoman Empire ended.) Both the Sheikh and the Emperor had actually been selected — and then forced — by Turkey’s aristocracy, for them to declare Islamic Holy War at that time. In fact, the sitting Sheikh, Mehmet Cemaleddin Efendi, in 1913, was actually an opponent of the pro-German and war-oriented policy of the Union and Progress Party, which represented Turkey’s aristocrats, and so that Sheikh was replaced by them, in order to enable a declaration of Islamic Holy War. Jihad actually had its origin in Turkey’s aristocracy — not in the Muslim masses, and not even in the Muslim clergy. It resulted from an overly ambitious Turkish aristocracy, hoping to extend their empire. It did not result from the public. And, at that time, relatively few Muslims followed this ‘Holy’ command, which is one reason why the Ottoman Empire soon thereafter ended.
Incidentally, so as to clarify how Turkey’s aristocracy ran the show, at that time, Taner Akçam’s September 2006 “The Ottoman Documents and the Genocidal Policies of the Committee for Union and Progress … toward the Armenians in 1915” reported that:
The fact that the decision about the Armenians was made after a great deal of thought, based on extensive debate and discussion by the Central Committee of the CUP [Committee for Union and Progress], can be understood by looking at other sources of information as well. The indictment of the Main Trial states as follows: ‘‘The murder and annihilation of the Armenians was a decision taken by the Central Committee of the Union and Progress Party.’’ These decisions were the result of ‘‘long and extensive discussions.’’ In the indictment are the statements of Dr. Nazım to the effect that ‘‘it was a matter taken by the Central Committee after thinking through all sides of the issue’’ and that it was ‘‘an attempt to reach a final solution to the Eastern Question.’’54 In his memoirs, which were published in the newspaper Vakit, Celal, the governor of Aleppo, describes the same words being spoken to him by a deputy of the Ottoman Parliament from Konya, coming as a ‘‘greeting of a member of the Central Committee.’’ This deputy told Celal that if he had ‘‘expressed an opinion that opposed the point of view of the others, [he would] have been expelled.’’55
(And, consequently, when Hitler allegedly — on 22 August 1939, right before his invasion of Poland which started WW II, and it is on page 2 here, but the sincerity and even the authenticity of that alleged private ‘speech’ by him should be questioned and not accepted outright by historians — cited Turkey’s genocide against Armenian Christians as being proof that genocide is acceptable, Hitler would actually have been citing there not only a Muslim proponent of genocide, but an ally of Germany who had actually done it, because the Ottoman Empire’s aristocracy had been both Muslim and German-allied. Hitler would, in that ‘speech’, if he actually said it, have been citing that earlier ally of Germany, which had actually genocided Christians. The genocide happened, even if that speech mentioning it was concocted by some propagandist during WW II.)
The new jihad, or Islamic version of the Crusades, is, however, very different from the one that had started on 14 November 1914. It wasn’t Turkish, it instead came straight from Turkey’s top competitor to lead the world’s Muslims, the royal family who owned Saudi Arabia, the Sauds. But they partnered with America’s aristocracy, in creating it.
Today’s jihadism started in 1979, when U.S. President Jimmy Carter’s national security advisor, Zbigniew Brzezinski (a born Polish nobleman), and his colleague Prince Bandar bin Sultan al Saud, re-created jihad or Islamic Holy War, in order to produce a dirt-cheap army of Pakistani fundamentalist Sunni students or “mujahideen,” soon to be renamed Taliban (Pashto & Persian ṭālibān, plural of ṭālib student, seeker, from Arabic) so as to invade and conquer next door to the Soviet Union the newly Soviet-allied Afghanistan, and to turn it ‘pro-Western’, now meaning both anti-Soviet, and anti-Shiite. (The Saud family hate Shiites, and so do America’s aristocrats, whose CIA had conquered Shiite Iran in 1953, and who became outraged when Shiites retook Iran in 1979. And, from then on, America’s aristocracy, too, have hated Shiites and have craved to re-conquer Iran. By contrast, the Sauds had started in 1744 to hate Shiites.) So, modern Islamic Holy War started amongst fundamentalist Sunnis in Pakistan in 1979, against both the Soviets and the Iranians (and now against both Russia and Iran). Here is a video of Brzezinski actually doing that — starting the “mujahideen” (subsequently to become the Taliban) onto this ‘Holy War’:
Brzezinski, incidentally, had been born a Roman Catholic Polish aristocrat whose parents hated and despised Russians, and this hostility went back to the ancient conflicts between the Roman Catholic and the Russian Orthodox Churches.
So: whereas on the American end this was mainly a Roman Catholic versus Orthodox operation, it was mainly a Sunni versus Shiite operation on the Saudi end.
Here’s more of the personal background regarding the co-creation, by the aristocracies of America and of Saudi Arabia, of today’s jihadism, or “radical Islamic terrorism”:
Whereas Nelson Rockefeller in the Republican Party sponsored Harvard’s Henry Kissinger as the geostrategist and National Security Advisor, David Rockefeller in the Democratic Party sponsored Harvard’s and then Columbia’s Zbigniew Brzezinski as the geostrategist and National Security Advisor. The Rockefeller family was centrally involved in controlling the U.S. Government.
According to pages 41-44 of David B. Ottaway’s 2008 The King’s Messenger: Prince Bandar, U.S. President Jimmy Carter, whose National Security Advisor was Brzezinski, personally requested and received advice from a certain graduate student at Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), Saudi Prince Bandar bin Sultan al Saud, regarding geostrategy. At the time, Brzezinski commented favorably on Bandar’s graduate thesis. But that’s not all. “Secretly, Carter had already turned to the kingdom for help, calling in Bandar and asking him to deliver a message to [King] Fahd pleading for an increase in Saudi [oil] production. Fahd’s reply, according to Bandar, was ‘Tell my friend, the president of the United States of America, when they need our help, they will not be disappointed.’13 The king was true to his world.” However, Bandar’s advice went beyond oil. And the re-creation, of the fundamentalist-Sunni movement (amongst only fundamentalist Sunni Muslims, both in 1914 and in 1979), that now is called “jihadism,” was a joint idea, from both Brzezinski and Bandar.
On 2 July 2014, Akbar Ganji headlined at Huffington Post, “U.S.-Jihadist Relations (Part 1): Creating the Mujahedin in Afghanistan”, and he noted that:
It was the United States that, together with Saudi Arabia, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and Pakistan, dispatched the jihadists to Afghanistan. Prince Bandar bin Sultan of Saudi Arabia played a key role in those operations, with Saudi Arabia providing the key financial, military and human support for them. The kingdom encouraged its citizens to go to Afghanistan to fight the Soviet army. One such citizen was Osama bin Laden. Saudi Arabia agreed to match, dollar for dollar, any funds that the CIA could raise for the operations. The U.S. provided Pakistan with $3.2 billion, and Saudi Arabia bought weapons from everywhere, including international black markets, and sent them to Afghanistan through Pakistan’s ISI.
That was then, and this is now, but it is merely an extension of that same operation, even after the Soviet Union and its communism and its Warsaw Pact military alliance all ended in 1991, and Russia ended its side of the Cold War but the United States secretly continued its side, as is shown here, by an example. This example, of America’s continuing its Cold War, is America’s longstanding effort, after the death of FDR in 1945, to overthrow and replace Syria’s pro-Russian Government and install instead a Syrian Government that will be controlled by the Sauds:
U.S. President Barack Obama was warned in 2012 by U.S. DOD intelligence that if he would try to overthrow and replace Syria’s secular, non-sectarian (and predominantly Shiite) Government (as the Sauds had been urging every U.S. President ever since Truman to do — to replace those secular Shiites by fundamentalist Sunnis), he would be able to do it only with the support of Syria’s minority of fanatically Sunni fundamentalists, who were especially concentrated in Syria’s northwestern province of Idlib, bordering Turkey. Obama went for the idea, and promoted it as being his attempt to ‘liberate’ Syria, from being led by the “barbaric” secular, non-sectarian, Shiite, Bashar al-Assad. As far back as 2009, Obama had been informed that an intense drought was ripening Syria for overthrow (regime-change), but Obama wanted to wait for his second term before he’d go all-out for this conquest. Obama didn’t want his re-election chances to be clouded by possible accusations that he would be arming Al Qaeda. But, anyway, he needed to do it that way because only as late as December 2012 did Syria’s domestic jihadists make clear to him that they’d go along with his plan to wage war against Assad only if they would be led by Syria’s Al Qaeda, called “Al Nusra.” So, this invasion began only in his second term, starting in January 2013. But the planning for the ‘rebellion’ — the “Arab Spring” in Syria — actually began in 2009, and the U.S. State Department, under Hillary Clinton, was centrally involved. Turkey “began operations in April-May 2011” to overthrow Assad, but Obama had actually started it, Erdogan didn’t. Turkey merely cooperated with it. Altogether, throughout the U.S.-initiated war in Syria, something on the order of around a hundred thousand jihadists have come into Syria from around the world so as to overthrow Bashar al-Assad. Virtually all of them entered through Turkey, to its north. The influx was a trickle as late as 2013, escalated in 2014, approximately doubled in 2015, and continued escalating, but no reliable count of the incoming jihadists exists. Though Turkey was the pathway, this invasion started actually in Washington.
So, in this new ‘Islamic holy war’, to overthrow Syria’s non-sectarian Government, the fighters entered Syria through Turkey, and they were welcomed mainly in Syria’s province of Idlib, which adjoins Turkey.
On 13 March 2012, the Al Jazeera TV station, of the pro-jihad Thani royal family of Qatar, headlined “Inside Idlib: Saving Syria”, and opened
The Syrian government crackdown on the dissenting northern city of Idlib has continued for a third day, with casualties from random shelling and sniper fire mounting, and growing concerns for many citizens detained by government forces. “I can’t tell you what an unequal contest this is …. The phrase that we felt yesterday applied to it was ‘Shooting fish in a barrel’ – these people can’t escape, they can’t help themselves, they have very little weaponry, what can they do but sit there and take it?”
The UK Government had given Qatar to the Thanis in 1868. On 12 September 1868, Mohammed Bin Thani signed “an agreement with the British Political Resident Col. Lewis Pelly, which was considered as the first international recognition of the sovereignty of Qatar”; so, on that precise day, Britain’s Queen Victoria gave Qatar to his family, which owns it, to the present day. The Thanis are the leading financial backers of the Muslim Brotherhood, which spreads Thani influence to foreign countries. (At least up till 9/11, the Saud family have been the main financial backers of Al Qaeda.) The Thanis have been, along with the Sauds, the main financial backers of replacing the non-sectarian Syrian Government by a fundamentalist-Sunni Syrian Government. Whereas the Sauds want to control that new government, also the Thanis do, and this is one reason for the recent falling-out between those two families. America’s aristocracy prefers that Syria’s rulers will be selected by the Saud family, because they buy more weapons from the U.S. than does any other country. However, everything is transactional between aristocracies, and, so, international alliances can change. It’s always a jostling, everyone grabbing for whatever they can get: aristocracies operate no differently than crime-families do, because FDR’s dream of an anti-imperialistic U.N., which would set and enforce international laws, died when he did; we live instead in an internationally lawless world — he died far too soon. In a sense (at least ideologically), Hitler won, but, actually, Churchill did (he was as much an imperialist as Hitler and Mussolini were).
Anyway, uncounted tens of thousands of jihadists from all over the world descended upon Syria, funded by the Sauds and the Thanis, and armed and trained by the United States, to conquer Syria. At the Syrian Government’s request, Russia started bombing the jihadists on 30 September 2015. That air-support for the Syrian Army turned the war around. By the time of 4 May 2018, Britain’s Financial Times headlined “Idlib offers uncertain sanctuary to Syria’s defeated rebels” (“rebels” being the U.S. and UK Governments’ term for jihadists who were serving as the U.S., Saud and Thani, proxy-forces or mercenaries to conquer Syria) and reported (stenographically transmitting what the CIA and MI6 told them to say) that, “more than 70,000 rebels and civilians” — meaning jihadists and their families — who were “fleeing … the last rebel holdout near the capital,” had been given a choice, and this “choice was die in Ghouta, or leave for Idlib,” and chose to get onto the Government-supplied buses taking them to Idlib. So, perhaps unnumbered hundreds of thousands of jihadists did that, from all over Syria, and collecting them in Idlib.
As I reported on 10 May 2018:
On May 8th, Syria’s Government bannered, “6th batch of terrorists leave southern Damascus for northern Syria” and reported that “During the past five days, 218 buses carrying … terrorists with their families exited from the three towns to Jarablos and Idleb under the supervision of the Syrian Arab Red Crescent.” Jarablos (or “Jarabulus”) is a town or “District” in the Aleppo Governate; and Idleb (or “Idlib”) is the capital District in the adjoining Governate of Idlib, which Governate is immediately to the west of Aleppo Governate; and both Jarabulus and Idlib border on Turkey to the north. Those two towns in Syria’s far northwest are where captured jihadists are now being sent.
The Government is doing that because at this final stage in the 7-year-long war, it wants civilian deaths and additional destruction of buildings to be kept to a minimum, and so is offering jihadists the option of surviving instead of being forced to fight to the death (which would then require Syria’s Government to destroy the entire area that’s occupied by the terrorists); this way, these final clean-up operations against the terrorists won’t necessarily require bombing whole neighborhoods — surrenders thus become likelier, so as to end the war as soon as possible, and to keep destruction and civilian casualties at a minimum.
The Syrian and Russian Governments had planned to finish them off there in Idlib, so that none of them could escape back into their home countries to continue their jihad. However, the U.S. and its allies raised ‘humanitarian’ screams at the U.N. and other international organizations, in order to protect the ‘rebels’ against the ‘barbarous dictator’ of Syria, its President, Bashar al-Assad — just in order to create more anti-Assad (and anti-Russian, and anti-Iranian) propaganda. And, so, on 9 and 10 September 2018, Putin and Erdogan and Rouhani met in Rouhani’s Tehran to decide what to do. By that time, Erdogan was riding the fence between Washington and Moscow. On 17 September 2018, I headlined “Putin and Erdogan Plan Syria-Idlib DMZ as I Recommended” and reported that Putin and Rouhani entrusted Idlib to Erdogan, with the expectation that Erdogan would keep the jihadists penned-up there, so that Putin and Assad would be able to bomb them to hell after the ‘humanitarian crisis’ in Idlib would be no longer on front pages.
As things turned out, Erdogan double-crossed Putin and Rouhani, and just grabbed the territory.
The role of the United Nations in this has been to stand aside and pretend that it’s a ‘humanitarian crisis’ (as the U.S. regime wanted it to be called) instead of a U.S.-and-allied invasion, aggressive war, and consequently a vast war-crime such as Hitler’s top leaders were prosecuted and executed for at Nuremberg. As Miri Wood wrote, at Syria News, on 28 February 2018:
Members of the General Assembly must be in good financial standing to vote. Dues are on a sliding scale but do not factor in draconian sanctions against targeted members, nor crimes of war involved in their destruction. As such, CAR, Libya, Venezuela and Yemen have been stripped of their voting rights. The non-permanent SC members function as obedient House Servants to the P3 bullies, ever mindful of placing self-preservation above moral integrity.
So Truman’s U.N. turns out to be on the side of the new Nazism, against its victims.
Erdogan wants to be with the winners. He evidently believes that whatever empire he’ll be able to have will be just a vassal nation within the U.S. Empire. He had been extremely reluctant to accept this viewpoint, but, apparently, he now does. And so, now, Erdogan has become so confident that he has the backing of Christian-majority America and of Christian-majority Europe, so that Turkey’s Hagia Sophia, which had been “the world’s largest cathedral for nearly a thousand years, until Seville Cathedral was completed in 1520,” has finally become officially declared by the Turkish Government to be, instead, a mosque. He feels safe enough to insult the publics in the other NATO countries so as to be able now to assert publicly his support for Islam against Christianity, because he knows that NATO’s other aristocracies — all of them majority-Christian, and all of these aristocrats ruling their respective Christian-majority countries — don’t really give a damn about that. Amongst themselves, the concern for ‘heaven’ is all just for show, because they are far more interested to buy Paradise in the here-and-now, for themselves and for their families. As for any possible ‘afterlife’, it will be reflected in the big buildings and charities that will bear their names, after they’re gone. Erdogan feels safe, knowing that they’re all psychopaths. And, as for the publics anywhere — Syria, Libya, even in Turkey itself — they don’t matter, to him, any more than they do to the leaders of those other NATO countries.
Consequently, too, on July 18th, the American Herald Tribune headlined “As It Did in Libya, Turkey Recruits Syrian Militants to Fight in Azerbaijan”, and Khaled Iskef, a journalist for Beirut’s Almaydeen TV, reported, based on unnamed “private sources in the northern countryside of Aleppo,” that
Turkish forces started recruiting numbers of its armed fighters to send them to Azerbaijan in order to assist the Azerbaijani forces in confronting the Armenian army.
According to sources, Turkey opened special promotion offices in different parts of Afrin northern Aleppo, to attract the militants and encourage them to sign contracts by which they would move to fight in Azerbaijan for a period of six months, renewable in case they wanted to.
According to the contract, the militants receive a monthly salary of $2500, while the advantage of granting Turkish citizenship to the families of the militants in case they died is absent, contrary to the contracts that Turkey had signed with the armed men who wanted to move to Libya.
The sources said that Turkey has designated centers for registering militants wishing to fight in Azerbaijan within the towns of Genderes and Raju, along with Afrin city, and these centers have already started receiving requests by the militants.
Armenia is virtually 100% Christian, and, according to Wikipedia:
The Armenian Genocide[c] (also known as the Armenian Holocaust) was the systematic mass murder and expulsion of 1.5 million[b] ethnic Armenians carried out in Turkey and adjoining regions by the Ottoman government between 1914 and 1923. The starting date is conventionally held to be 24 April 1915, the day that Ottoman authorities rounded up, arrested, and deported from Constantinople (now Istanbul) to the region of Angora (Ankara), 235 to 270 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders, the majority of whom were eventually murdered.
So, the recruitment of fundamentalist-Sunni mercenaries in the areas of Syria that Turkey has captured, and sending those men “to assist the Azerbaijani forces in confronting the Armenian army,” is likewise consistent with the NATO member-country Turkey’s restoration of its former Ottoman Empire. Using these jihadist proxy-soldiers, NATO is now invading Christian Armenia.
However, Iskef was reporting without paying any attention to the aristocratic interests which were actually very much involved in what Erdogan was doing here. On July 19th, Cyril Widdershoven at the “Oil Price” site bannered “The Forgotten Conflict That Is Threatening Energy Markets” and he reported the economic geostrategic factors which were at stake in this now-emerging likely hot war, which is yet another “pipeline war,” and which pits Turkey against Russia. In this particular matter, Turkey has an authentic economic reason to become engaged in a possible hot war allied with Muslim Azerbaijan against Christian Armenia. Russia, yet again, would be backing Christian soldiers. Of course, NATO, also yet again, would be on the Muslim side, against the Christians. But, this time, NATO would be backing Azerbaijan, which is 85% Shiite. Consequently, in such a conflict, the U.S. could end up on the same side as Iran, and against Russia.
If history is any guide, aristocratic interests will take precedence over theocratic interests, but democratic interests — the interests of the publics that are involved — will be entirely ignored. The sheer hypocrisy of the U.S. regime (‘defending democracy and human rights’) exceeds anything in human history.
How can anybody not loathe the U.S. regime and its allies? Only by getting one’s ‘news’ from its ‘news’-media — especially (but not only) its mainstream ones.
Investigative historian Eric Zuesse is the author, most recently, of They’re Not Even Close: The Democratic vs. Republican Economic Records, 1910-2010, and of CHRIST’S VENTRILOQUISTS: The Event that Created Christianity.
The statements, views and opinions expressed in this column are solely those of the author and do not necessarily represent those of The Duran.